In the run-up to the Presidency of the Council of the EU (1st semester 2024), this report presents the broad outlines of the Belgian institutional landscape in the field of research, technology and innovation and highlights the respective competences of the different authorities, namely the Federal State, the Regions and the Communities, their priorities, actors and instruments, as well as their perspectives for the future. The Belgian Report on Science, Technology and Innovation (BRISTI) has been published twice to date, in 2001 (with an online update in 2005) and in 2010.1 The first two editions were published to mark previous Belgian presidencies of the European Union (EU). As with the two previous reports, the 2021 report provides readers, notably those from other EU Member States, with an overview of the institutions, the policies and the main research and innovation (R&I) actors in Belgium. Compared to the previous editions, which were more focused on scientific and industrial research, this BRISTI report adopts a broader perspective on research and innovation. This choice reflects the growing understanding that the main challenge for R&I policy is to empower transformative change. In turn, this requires cross-departmental policy coordination, policy measures that foster all forms of innovation and involve a diverse set of actors, increased ‘directionality’ through shared visions and missions, plus the broad dissemination of innovation in the economy and society.